MODAL VERBS: have to, don't have to, must, mustn't

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Typical mistakes:
· Be very careful and never say: I must to go to the bank (I must go to the bank).
· Be careful and never use don't have to instead of mustn't: You don't have to smoke in class. (You mustn't smoke in class.)

In Básico 1 you learnt to use can't for general prohibition, e.g. You can't park here. (=You mustn't park here.), so in this context mustn't and can't are more or less synonymous.

Notice the impersonal use of you when you talk about rules and laws: You have to drive on the left.



· have to / chores

· have to
external obligation (always)
You have to wear a seatbelt in a car. (law on roads)
· a rule, a law
· doesn't have to
- no obligation
- not necessary
- You don’t have to go to the party it you don’t want to. (no obligation)
- You don’t have to pay for the tickets. They’re free. (not necessary)

· must
- external obligation (1 occasion)
- personal obligation or decision
- You must be on time for class tomorrow – you have a test.
- I must buy a new jacket – this one is too old now (my own decision)
· must to
· do / does
· mustn't
You mustn’t smoke in class. (= You can't smoke in class.)
· = can't
· mustn't to
· do / does


· Native speakers tend to pronounce have to as /hæf tə/ rather than /hæv tʊ:/
· must can be pronounced weakly /məst/ or strongly /mʌst/ depending on whether you want to give extra emphasis to what you are saying, e.g. You must give in your homework before Friday (= weak stress). You must come to class on time (= strong stress).

Be careful:
· the first t is silent in mustn't /'mʌst/
· have in have to is not contracted: You've to arrive to class on time. (You have to arrive to class on time.)


Krakov Center:
Krakov South:
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Poland became member of the European Union in May 2004.
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The Main Marquet Square:
The main square of the Old Town of Kraków is the principal urban space located at the center of the city. It dates back to the 13th century, and at roughly 40,000 m² (430,000 ft²) is the largest medieval town square in Europe. The Project for Public Spaces (PPS) lists the square as the best public space in Europe due to its lively street life.
The main square is a rectangular space surrounded by historic townhouses, palaces and churches. The center of the square is dominated by the Cloth Hall, rebuilt in 1555 in the Renaissance style, topped by a beautiful attic or Polish parapet decorated with carved masks. On one side of the cloth hall is the Town Hall Tower, on the other the 10th century Church of St. Adalbert and 1898 Adam Mickiewicz Monument. Rising above the square are the Gothic towers of St. Mary's Basilica.
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St. Mary's Basilica

Church of Our Lady Assumed into Heaven (also known as St. Mary's Church) is a Brick Gothic church re-built in the 14th century (originally built in the early 13th century), adjacent to the Main Market Square in Kraków, Poland. Standing 80 m (262 ft) tall, it is particularly famous for its wooden altarpiece carved by Veit Stoss.

On every hour, a trumpet signal—called the Hejnał mariacki—is played from the top of the taller of St. Mary's two towers. The plaintive tune breaks off in mid-stream, to commemorate the famous 13th century trumpeter, who was shot in the throat while sounding the alarm before the Mongol attack on the city. The noon-time hejnał is heard across Poland and abroad broadcast live by the Polish national Radio 1 Station.

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Wawel Castle:
The Gothic Wawel Castle in Kraków in Poland was built at the behest of Casimir III the Great, who reigned from 1333 to 1370, and consists of a number of structures situated around the central courtyard.
The Wawel Royal Castle and the Wawel Hill constitute the most historically and culturally important site in Po­land. For centuries the residence of the kings of Poland and the symbol of Polish statehood, the Castle is now one of the country’s premier art museums. Established in 1930, the museum encompasses ten curatorial departments responsible for collections of paintings, including an important collection of Italian Renaissance paintings, prints, sculpture, textiles, among them the Sigismund II Augustus tapestry collection, goldsmith’s work, arms and armor, ceramics, Meissen porcelain, and period furniture. The museum’s holdings in oriental art include the largest collection of Ottoman tents in Europe. With seven specialized conservation studios, the museum is also an important center for the conservation of works of art.
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Juliusz Słowacki Theatre in Kraków, Poland, erected in 1893, was modeled after some of the best European Baroque theatres, and named after Polish poet Juliusz Słowacki in 1909.
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Historic points in the city:
- Gestapo prison:
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- Courtyard in Kazimierz (Schindler's List):
The photo shows the balconies in the courtyard from where the suitcases were thrown down in the scene in Spielberg's movie in which the Podgorze Ghetto is liquidated.
One of the most memorable passages in the novel Schindler's List is the one where Mrs. Dresner hides under a stairwell when the Nazis come to round up the Jews in the Ghetto in June 1942 to take them to the Belzec extermination camp. According to the book, after this roundup in which many of the Jews escaped, the Jewish Combat Organization (ZOB), a group of resistance fighters, bombed the Cyganeria Restaurant and killed 7 German SS soldiers. Next the SS-only Bagatella Cinema was bombed in Krakow. In the next few months the ZOB sank German patrol boats on the Vistula, fire-bombed German military garages in Krakow and derailed a German army train, besides forging papers and passports for Jews to pass as Aryans. In the movie, the date of the scene where Mrs. Dresner hides has been changed to the day of the liquidation of the ghetto on March 13, 1943.

The photograph below shows the stairway used in the scene in which Mrs. Dresner hides from the Jewish police who were helping the Germans to round up the Jews for "transportation to the East," a euphemism for taking them to the gas chambers.
Mrs. Dresner hid under the stairwell after a neighbor allowed her daughter, but not her, to hide behind a false wall in an apartment. Mrs. Dresner was the aunt of Genia, the little girl in red, in the movie.
In the movie, the Nazis went through the Podgorze ghetto, room by room, and tore down walls as they looked for Jews who were hiding. While they are searching for Jews, a German soldier stops to play the piano. The Nazis loved classical music and this is a reference to the Jewish saying that the Nazis literally put down their violins in order to kill the Jews. Germany was the most civilized and advanced country in the world in the 1930s, which makes it all the harder to understand how the Nazis could have planned the deliberate genocide of the Jews.
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The Collegium Novum (Latin: "New College") is the Neo-Gothic main building of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland, built in 1873-1887. Based on a design by architect Feliks Księżarski to match the oldest building of the University, it was opened for the 500th anniversary of the University's foundation. The Collegium Novum replaced a former academic boarding school called Jeruzalem, consumed by fire in the mid-19th century.
On the upper floor of the College there is a lecture hall named after Józef Szujski – now used by historians – with the commemorative plaque in remembrance of the events surrounding Nazi German action called Sonderaktion Krakau where 183 professors were arrested and later sent to camps in Sachsenhausen and Dachau. The plaque reads: "For the freedom of spirit and service to science and nation of Jagiellonian University professors deceitfully and forcefully taken away from this hall and imprisoned by the Nazi occupant on November 6, 1939."

The Collegium Maius (Latin for "Great College"), in Kraków Old Town, Poland, is the Jagiellonian University's oldest building, dating back to the 14th century. It stands at the corner of ulica Jagiellońska (Jagiellon Street) and ulica Świętej Anny (St. Anne Street) near the main city centre.
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St. Joseph's Church (in Podgorze):
The church was built between 1905 - 1909 according to the design of Jan Sas Zubrzycki, in the Gothic Revival style. It is the largest church in the Foothills.
The interior of the church has been shaped in the likeness of a Gothic cathedral in the so-called Gothic Vistula style. It is filled with numerous altars, benches and other items made mostly of wood. Work on the fittings lasted for years. In the postwar period, the locations of some of the altars and pulpits were changed, as well as a bricked arcade between ambulatory and the former chapel of the Sacred Heart (now Our Lady of Perpetual Help and Eternal Adoration). The first created altars were the main one (in the sanctuary) and the Annunciation (formerly in the right arm of the transept). Work on them was from 1908 - 1909. The main altar was originally consisted of the tabernacle and statues of St. Joseph. At the same time the main altar in the west (right) arm of the transept stood the altar of the Annunciation. There are 5 other main altars.
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Tempel Synagogue:
The Tempel Synagogue is a Reform Jewish synagogue in Kraków, Poland, in the Kazimierz district. The Moorish Revival building was designed by Ignacy Hercok, and built in 1860–1862 along Miodowa Street. The temple, with its tall central section flanked by lower wings, is designed on the pattern of the Leopoldstädter Tempel, in Vienna, Austria. At the time the synagogue was built, Kraków was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The richly finished interior is adorned with dense patterns painted in many colors and copious amounts of gold leaf, but the patterns, with the exception of the exquisite Moorish design on the ceiling, are not stylistically Moorish. The arch over the Aron Kodesh with its pattern of alternating tall and short houses is more in the style of Polish folk art than anything Islamic. The Aron Kodesh is covered by a gold-leaf dome that evokes the dome over the Sigismund Chapel in the nearby Wawel Cathedral.
The synagogue was ruined during the World War II by the German Nazis, who used the building as ammunition storage area. After the war, it was used again for prayers. In 1947, a mikvah was built in the northern part of the synagogue. Regular prayers were held until 1985. A large inflow of financial contributions from private donors around the world allowed the synagogue to undergo a vast renovation from 1995 until 2000. It is still active today, although formal prayers are held only a few times a year.
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Old Synagogue:
Old Synagogue is an Orthodox Jewish synagogue in the Kazimierz district of Kraków, Poland. It is the oldest synagogue building still standing in Poland, and one of the most precious landmarks of Jewish architecture in Europe. Until the German invasion of Poland in 1939, it was one of the most important synagogues in the city as well as the main religious, social, and organizational centre of the Kraków Jewish community. In 1794 General Tadeusz Kościuszko spoke from the synagogue to gain the Jewish support in the struggle for Polish independence. A plaque in the entrance hall commemorates this event:
  • "The Jews proved to the world that whenever humanity can gain, they would not spare themselves." – General Tadeusz Kosciuszko
The Synagogue was built in 1407 or 1492; the date of building varies with several sources.
The synagogue was completely devastated and ransacked by the Germans during World War II. Its artwork and Jewish relics, looted. During the occupation, the synagogue was used as a magazine. In 1943, 30 Polish hostages were executed at its wall.
The Old Synagogue was renovated from 1956 to 1959 and currently operates as a museum. It is a Division of the Historical Museum of Kraków, with particular focus on Kraków's Jews. The exhibits are divided into themes dealing with birth, prayer rituals, diet, divorce and death. "The beautiful women's prayer room, which dates from the 17th century, is often used to hold temporary exhibitions."

The Ghetto:
The Kraków Ghetto was one of five major, metropolitan Jewish ghettos created by Nazi Germany in the new General Government territory during the German occupation of Poland in World War II. It was created for the purpose of exploitation, terror, and persecution of local Polish Jews, as well as the staging area for separating the "able workers" from those who would later be deemed unworthy of life. The Ghetto was liquidated between June 1942 and March 1943, with most of its inhabitants sent to Belzec extermination camp and Płaszów slave-labor camp, and exterminated also at Auschwitz concentration camp.

The Ghetto was surrounded by the newly built walls that kept it separated from the rest of the city. In a grim foreshadowing of the near future, these walls contained brick panels in the shape of tombstones. All windows and doors that gave onto the "Aryan" side were ordered bricked up. Only four guarded entrances allowed traffic to pass through. Small sections of the wall still remain today fitted with a memorial plaque.
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Jewish cemetery in Krakow:
The New Jewish Cemetery in Kraków, Poland covers an area of about 4.5 hectares (11 acres). It is located at Miodowa 55–58 Street, in the historic Jewish neighborhood of Kazimierz.
The Cemetery is a registered heritage monument featuring a well preserved historical mortuary.
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Apteka (chemistry):
Under the German Nazi occupation of Poland during World War II, Podgórze district was closed off in March 1941 as a ghetto for local area Jewry. Within the walls of the Kraków Ghetto there were four prewar pharmacies owned by non-Jews. Pankiewicz was the only proprietor to decline the German offer of relocating to the aryan side of the city. He was given permission to continue operating his establishment as the only pharmacy in the Ghetto, and reside on the premises. His staff were given passage permits to enter and exit the ghetto for work.
The often-scarce medications and pharmaceutical products supplied to the ghetto's residents, often free of charge, substantially improved their quality of life. In effect, apart from health care considerations, they contributed to survival itself. In his published testimonies, Pankiewicz makes particular mention of hair dyes used by those disguising their identities and tranquilizers given to fretful children required to keep silent during Gestapo raids.
The pharmacy became a meeting place for the ghetto's intelligentsia, and a hub of underground activity. Pankiewicz and his staff, Irena Drozdzikowska, Helena Krywaniuk, and Aurelia Danek, risked their lives to undertake numerous clandestine operations: smuggling food and information, and offering shelter on the premises for Jews facing deportation to the camps.
After World War II, on February 10, 1983, Tadeusz Pankiewicz was awarded recognition as a "Righteous Among the Nations" for his wartime activities in rescuing Jews. In April of that year, he was present at the inauguration of the national heritage museum housed in the Apteka Pod Orłem building. Tadeusz Pankiewicz died in 1993 and is buried in Kraków's Rakowicki Cemetery.
In April 1983, the "Pod Orlem" pharmacy, located at No.18 Plac Bohaterów Ghetta (Ghetto Heroes Plaza, renamed), opened its doors as the Museum of National Remembrance, featuring the history of Kraków Jewry with special focus on the ghetto period. In 2003, it became affiliated with the municipal Historical Museum of Kraków. The wartime activities of Pakiewicz and his staff are featured in an exhibition on the history of the Jewish ghetto in Kraków.
The pharmacy was featured in the Academy Award-winning film, Schindler's List. The film's director Steven Spielberg donated $40,000 for the building's preservation, for which he was honored by the city of Kraków with its prestigious "Patron of Culture" award for the year 2004.
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Schindler's Factory:
The factory has been turned into a modern museum devoted to the wartime experiences in Krakow under the five-year Nazi occupation during the World War II. The museum takes up the sprawling administration building of the defunct plant at 4 Lipowa street, in the city’s grim industrial district of Zablocie on the right bank of Wisla river. Ingenious exhibitions combine period artifacts, photos and documents with multimedia and set-piece arrangements in an attempt to create a full-immersion experience.
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Street art:
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Means of transport:
Transport in Kraków is based around a fairly dense network of tramway and bus lines operated by a municipal company, supplemented by a number of private minibus operators. Local trains connect some of the suburbs. The bulk of the city’s historic area has been turned into a pedestrian zone with golf buggies, rickshaws and horse buggies; however, the tramlines run within a three-block radius.
Rail connections are available to most Polish cities. Trains to Warsaw depart every hour. International destinations include Berlin, Budapest, Prague, Hamburg, Lviv, Kiev, and Odessa (June–September). The main railway station is located just outside the Old Town District and is well-served by public transport.
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Krakow also has a beach: (Vistula River)
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· Kuchnia

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· Pod Wawelem:
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Main course:
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- Miod Malina
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- Morskie Oko (in Krakow)
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Other food:
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Old shops:
Old Town:
Old Town:
In the Ghetto:
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The best ice-cream shop in Kravow:
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Poland is also famous for its amber. You can see amber jewelry everywhere in all shops.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times. Much valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects. Amber is used as an ingredient in perfumes, as a healing agent in folk medicine, and as jewelry.
There are five classes of amber, defined on the basis of their chemical constituents. Because it originates as a soft, sticky tree resin, amber sometimes contains animal and plant material as inclusions. Amber occurring in coal seams is also called resinite, and the term ambrite is applied to that found specifically within New Zealand coal seams.

Belvedere is a brand of Polish rye vodka produced and distributed by LVMH.
It is named after Belweder, the Polish presidential palace, whose illustration appears on its bottles. It is produced exclusively in Poland in the town of Żyrardów and has worldwide distribution. The brand was launched in the United States in 1996 as a "luxury" liquor and is widely regarded to be the world's first ‘super premium vodka.'

In cooking, a syrup or sirup is a thick, viscous liquid consisting primarily of a solution of sugar in water, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars but showing little tendency to deposit crystals.
It can be used to sweeten liquids as beer.
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This is an example of typical Polish cheese:
Gołka is a cheese from Poland that is similar to oscypek/oštiepok, but made with milk from cattle (=cows). Gołka has a cylindrical shape.
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Jay-walking (=cruce imprudente) is an offense in Poland. One may cross only at recognized crossing points if there is one within 100m. If caught by the police, the typical punishment is a fine. The same applies to crossing at a red light.

Interesting facts:
This is a typical Polish hitter:
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Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by the Third Reich in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany during World War II. It consisted of Auschwitz I (the base camp); Auschwitz II–Birkenau (the extermination camp); Auschwitz III–Monowitz (a labor camp to staff an IG Farben factory), and 45 satellite camps.
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The Wieliczka Salt Mine, located in the town of Wieliczka in southern Poland, lies within the Kraków metropolitan area. The mine, built in the 13th century, produced table salt continuously until 2007, as one of the world's oldest salt mines still in operation. From its beginning and throughout its existence, the Royal mine was run by the Żupy krakowskie Salt Mines. Commercial mining was discontinued in 1996 due to low salt prices and mine flooding.
The mine's attractions include dozens of statues, three chapels and an entire cathedral that has been carved out of the rock salt by the miners. The oldest sculptures are augmented by the new carvings by contemporary artists. About 1.2 million people visit the Wieliczka Salt Mine annually.
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Zakopane is a town in south Poland. It lies in the southern part of the Podhale region at the foot of the Tatra Mountains.
Zakopane is a center of Góral culture and is known informally as "the winter capital of Poland". It is a popular destination for mountaineering, skiing, and tourism.

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Church of the Holly Family:
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Peksow Brzyzek cemetery:
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- Morskie Oko
Morskie Oko is the largest and fourth deepest lake in the Tatra Mountains. It is located deep within the Tatra National Park, Poland, in the Rybi Potok Valley, at the base of the Mięguszowiecki Summits, in Lesser Poland Voivodeship.
Morskie Oko is one of the most popular destinations in the Tatras, often receiving over 50,000 visitors during the vacation season. It is reached by foot in about two hours from the nearest road that allows motorized access. Many other tourists opt to take the journey by horse-drawn cart, a large number of which are operated by the local Górale inhabitants. In winter, a short section of the journey is in an avalanche danger zone, and the area can remain cold and rainy even in summer. In the advent of its popularity, visitors have been forbidden from swimming in the lake or feeding the trout.
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A restaurant in Zakopane:
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Learning French: